Imagery in The Apocalyptic Address

Micah, chapter 7

Woe is me! For I am Like the fruit pickers and the grape gatherers. There is not a cluster of grapes to eat, Or a first-ripe fig which I crave. The godly person has perished from the land, And there is no upright person among men. All of them lie in wait for bloodshed; Each of them hunts the other with a net. Concerning evil, both hands do it well. The prince asks, also the judge, for a bribe, And a great man speaks the desire of his soul; So they weave it together. The best of them is like a briar, The most upright like a thorn hedge. The day when you post a watchman, Your punishment will come. Then their confusion will occur. Do not trust in a neighbor; Do not have confidence in a friend. From her who lies in your bosom Guard your lips. For son treats father contemptuously, Daughter rises up against her mother, Daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; A man’s enemies are the men of his own household. God Is the Source of Salvation and Light But as for me, I will watch expectantly for the LORD; I will wait for the God of my salvation. My God will hear me. Do not rejoice over me, O my enemy. Though I fall I will rise; Though I dwell in darkness, the LORD is a light for me. I will bear the indignation of the LORD Because I have sinned against Him, Until He pleads my case and executes justice for me. He will bring me out to the light, And I will see His righteousness. Then my enemy will see, And shame will cover her who said to me, “Where is the LORD your God?” My eyes will look on her; At that time she will be trampled down, Like mire of the streets. It will be a day for building your walls. On that day will your boundary be extended. It will be a day when they will come to you From Assyria and the cities of Egypt, From Egypt even to the Euphrates, Even from sea to sea and mountain to mountain. And the earth will become desolate because of her inhabitants, On account of the fruit of their deeds. Shepherd Your people with Your scepter, The flock of Your possession Which dwells by itself in the woodland, In the midst of a fruitful field. Let them feed in Bashan and Gilead As in the days of old. “As in the days when you came out from the land of Egypt, I will show you miracles.” Nations will see and be ashamed Of all their might. They will put their hand on their mouth, Their ears will be deaf. They will lick the dust like a serpent, Like reptiles of the earth. They will come trembling out of their fortresses; To the LORD our God they will come in dread, And they will be afraid before You. Who is a God like You, who pardons iniquity And passes over the rebellious act of the remnant of His possession? He does not retain His anger forever, Because He delights in unchanging love. He will again have compassion on us; He will tread our iniquities under foot. Yes, You will cast all their sins Into the depths of the sea. You will give truth to Jacob And unchanging love to Abraham, Which You did swear to our forefathers From the days of old.

It is difficult not to look out the window and wonder if Micah was prophesying about our days. While we certainly see similarities and we can learn from Micah, because it is the word of God, we cannot look out our window and interpret the Bible, even though history repeats itself. We see idealistic items, and rightly so, but the prophecy is specifically written to people about to go into exile. Yet the majority of these people would not return from exile, according to Jeremiah. Why write then?

It was written for the sake of future generations to see the sin and depravity of their fathers and ultimately, their sin. But also it highlights the faith of a few–and has been handed down to us. Many people, when reading prophecy, have difficulty not applying it to their generation, accepting that the prophecy was fulfilled. Matthew went to great lengths to demonstrate that not only was Jesus the one of whom the writers wrote but that readers of the words didn’t understand. They knew where Jesus was to be born but didn’t understand who Jesus was.

Micah, chapter 7 is one of the most beautiful things ever written but it pales in comparison to Revelation one, in content, composition, ideals and imagery. “Woe is me! For I am Like the fruit pickers and the grape gatherers. There is not a cluster of grapes to eat, Or a first-ripe fig which I crave. The godly person has perished from the land, And there is no upright person among men. All of them lie in wait for bloodshed; Each of them hunts the other with a net. Concerning evil, both hands do it well. The prince asks, also the judge, for a bribe, And a great man speaks the desire of his soul; So they weave it together. The best of them is like a briar, The most upright like a thorn hedge. The day when you post a watchman, Your punishment will come. Then their confusion will occur.”

“John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from Him who is and who was and who is to come; and from the seven Spirits who are before His throne; and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the first-born of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To Him who loves us, and released us from our sins by His blood, and He has made us to be a kingdom, priests to His God and Father; to Him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen. BEHOLD, HE IS COMING WITH THE CLOUDS, and every eye will see Him, even those who pierced Him; and all the tribes of the land will mourn over Him. Even so. Amen. ‘I am the Alpha and the Omega,’ says the Lord God, ‘who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.’ I, John, your brother and fellow partaker in the tribulation and kingdom and perseverance which are in Jesus, was on the island called Patmos, because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus. I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day, and I heard behind me a loud voice like the sound of a trumpet, saying, ‘Write in a book what you see, and send it to the seven churches: to Ephesus and to Smyrna and to Pergamum and to Thyatira and to Sardis and to Philadelphia and to Laodicea.’ And I turned to see the voice that was speaking with me. And having turned I saw seven golden lampstands; and in the middle of the lampstands one like a son of man, clothed in a robe reaching to the feet, and girded across His breast with a golden girdle. And His head and His hair were white like white wool, like snow; and His eyes were like a flame of fire; and His feet were like burnished bronze, when it has been caused to glow in a furnace, and His voice was like the sound of many waters.”

We see distinction between Micah’s writing and John’s, especially in the content and imagery even though the themes are similar. For instance, we certainly see sin but the way in which it was and is dealt with are different. We certainly see the Messiah in both but one was a promise of a baby boy who would grow and the other is the old, wise, glorious king who has found fruition. Let’s compare and contrast the context. One problem I have in explaining the cultural context of Revelation is that most people say that John wrote it somewhere around 90 AD. We will come back to this.

There are around 7 billion people on the planet and I am a controversial character who is not good at math but I do have a calculator. Additionally I deconstruct debates and am an extremely curious creature, who tests everything. The truth is, that the truth is rarely stated in full, by either side of a debate. Therefore I test. Fact-check websites are biased, beyond biased actually, so that I have to do some extensive research on my own. Other times simple math will suffice. Being controversial, living in an extremely leftist leaning region, I say things like, “there are too many people on this planet.” The vast majority of the people present around me agree. But by now you know me–“except that there are not, accept that there are not.” An argument ensues and I am told that there are indeed, too many people on this planet. I ask, “who says that there are too many people on this planet?” The answer is always the same; “They do, those scientists or whatever, who know things and stuff.” Problem, simple math proves them wrong. If we placed the entire world in Texas, each person would have over a thousand square feet. Which is enough for a tiny house and a small garden. Admittedly there wouldn’t be any room for roads but Texas is not as big as Texans think it is. If we throw Kansas, Arkansas, New Mexico and Oklahoma into the mix, there’s plenty of room for roads and even parks, leaving the rest of the fertile world to cattle and farms. I realize that a thousand other arguments spring up from this discussion and I certainly don’t suggest placing the entire population in Texas, in fact, I am arguing the opposite. The point is everyone believes that there are too many people on this planet because “they” say so. And even when presented with this evidence, this simple math (172,000,000 acres ÷ 7,000,000,000 people =@.025) they refuse to believe.

In the same way people believe that John wrote Revelation around 90 AD because “they” say so. It’s taught traditionally without citing a source. Unless you are learning for yourself, you only know what you have been taught. It is now part of christian culture simply because it has been repeated over and over and over again. We don’t even question it anymore but when one does, they are immediately shut down–without evidence or citing a source, it is simply assumed as fact. The only real, external source of which people can cite was ambiguously written and written by a man who claimed that Jesus was 50 years old when he was crucified. However the internal evidence of when Revelation was written is overwhelming because the temple is in existence. The arguments are made that it’s either a third, future temple or a figurative temple. This should raise some eyebrows. Jesus said that the temple would topple. It’s an amazing prophecy which was fulfilled and yet John measured a presumably different temple without mentioning the destruction of the temple in which he worshiped, according to tradition? But this is only the first clue– John failing to mention that the prophecy Jesus made concerning the toppling of the temple, whereas Matthew goes to great lengths proving prophecy. What better time to tell the world that Jesus predicted and promised the toppling of the temple? To those who say that we are to take prophecy literally, notice; “And Jesus came out from the temple and was going away when His disciples came up to point out the temple buildings to Him. And He answered and said to them, ‘Do you not see all these things? Truly I say to you, not one stone here shall be left upon another, which will not be torn down.'”

In Revelation we read; “John to the seven churches that are in Asia…Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for the number is that of a man; and his number is six hundred and sixty-six.” Bear with me in a little silliness: in Philadelphia, Asia Minor in 90 AD, a young, studious woman is in the presence of Revelation being read, and as the part about the number of the beast is proclaimed, she grabs a pencil and paper, feverishly scribbling on her note pad. The pastor continues to read for a few minutes but then the woman leaps to her feet and exclaims, “I’ve got it, I’ve got it, I’ve got it! I have deciphered the name. Wait, who is Emmanuel Macron?” One doesn’t write to people a code of which they can’t decode themselves. Therefore we search for relevant evidence of the time period. “Here is the mind which has wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains on which the woman sits, and they are seven kings; five have fallen, one is, the other has not yet come; and when he comes, he must remain a little while.” Rome is the city on seven hills. Five fallen kings–Julius, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, One is, Nero and the other has not yet come; and when he comes he must remain a little while, Galba, who lasted a whopping 7 months. And the context continues to clarify but I get it, there are too many people in the world because they said so.

To see the imagery of an apocalyptic address, one must understand the cultural context. Micah wrote to those about to go into exile and John wrote to the early churches and I would argue the very early churches. Micah and Isaiah wrote, woe is me while John wrote grace, peace and a built-in blessing. In Micah we see the sin of the prophet as well as in Isaiah. But in Revelation we read; “To Him who loves us, and released us from our sins by His blood, and He has made us to be a kingdom, priests to His God and Father; to Him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen.” In Micah we read of the corruption of the priests and prophets. And although we see sin in Revelation, we also see that it has been dealt a deadly blow, prophecied by Micah, Isaiah and even in Genesis–Jesus came, he saw a corrupted kingdom and kicked Sin’s butt. And while the theme in Revelation is almost exactly the same as Micah and Isaiah, Jesus also has set the prisoners free and we see this in some of the imagery.

In Micah, Jesus is the great shepherd, born of a woman but his goings forth are from the “days of eternity.” In Isaiah, amongst other things, he is the suffering servant but in Revelation he is all these things and more. He has feet like burnished bronze and hair white, like white wool, like snow. He has a golden sash and a long robe. He is the Lion and the Lamb. Revelation gives us a much fuller picture of the King of kings but Micah and Isaiah both point to this in their imagery. The point is that Jesus was prophesied and promised progressively but his apex is absolutely found in Revelation. We have the ability to see and compare all these books but several hundred years before the birth of the baby boy, Jesus, Micah and Isaiah use imagery to paint the picture of their dark days and the light that would come in Jesus.

He is certainly seen as a shepherd in Micah. We have read, “And He will arise and shepherd His flock In the strength of the LORD, In the majesty of the name of the LORD His God. And they will remain, Because at that time He will be great To the ends of the earth.” And in today’s text we read, “Shepherd Your people with Your scepter, The flock of Your possession Which dwells by itself in the woodland, In the midst of a fruitful field. Let them feed in Bashan and Gilead As in the days of old.” Micah continued with the theme of his people having no shepherd because all the leaders, the priests and the prophets were corrupt–as were all the people including the true prophets.

“Woe is me! For I am Like the fruit pickers and the grape gatherers. There is not a cluster of grapes to eat, Or a first-ripe fig which I crave. The godly person has perished from the land, And there is no upright person among men.” Micah teaches us how to see and interpret imagery using a simile. He compares himself to a gatherer of grapes, with no grapes to gather. The obvious allusion is that the “godly person” on the land is the grapes, of which, there are none. But we know this to be both hyperbole and under exaggeration because there is always a remnant, even if it is one man like Noah. And because “all have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God.” Micah clarifies this.

“All of them lie in wait for bloodshed; Each of them hunts the other with a net. Concerning evil, both hands do it well. The prince asks, also the judge, for a bribe, And a great man speaks the desire of his soul; So they weave it together. The best of them is like a briar, The most upright like a thorn hedge. The day when you post a watchman, Your punishment will come. Then their confusion will occur. Do not trust in a neighbor; Do not have confidence in a friend. From her who lies in your bosom Guard your lips. For son treats father contemptuously, Daughter rises up against her mother, Daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; A man’s enemies are the men of his own household. God Is the Source of Salvation and Light But as for me, I will watch expectantly for the LORD; I will wait for the God of my salvation. My God will hear me. Do not rejoice over me, O my enemy. Though I fall I will rise; Though I dwell in darkness, the LORD is a light for me. I will bear the indignation of the LORD Because I have sinned against Him, Until He pleads my case and executes justice for me. He will bring me out to the light, And I will see His righteousness.”

Micah looks and waits for the Lord while the people around him excel at evil. But we also notice the confession of Micah’s sin. And in the imagery we certainly see recapitulation. “All of them lie in wait for bloodshed; Each of them hunts the other with a net.” Did the 12 tribes actually have nets with which to capture their brothers? Of course not, this is metaphorical and it paints a picture of the self-centered, sinful nature of people. Micah continues to paint the picture with words; “Concerning evil, both hands do it well. The prince asks, also the judge, for a bribe, And a great man speaks the desire of his soul; So they weave it together. The best of them is like a briar, The most upright like a thorn hedge.”

We fast forward to Revelation and read, “And he laid his right hand on me saying, “fear not.” We are also obsessed with the mark of the beast taken on the forehead or the right hand, not realizing that this is a parody of the mark of the Lord. Hands are imagery of what a person does, how he works and what motivates him. And while Jesus places his nail-scarred hand on John, in comfort, authority and power over sin, in Micah we see how well the people sinned with both hands. Jesus spoke similarly on the mount. “And if your right hand makes you stumble, cut it off, and throw it from you; for it is better for you that one of the parts of your body perish, than for your whole body to go into hell.” And yet Micah mentioned both hands. We have to see what Micah saw, absolute wickedness in the people. It’s what makes grace amazing but it also explains God’s reasoning for destruction. God is extremely patient, letting them run out to extreme rebellion before declaring desolation.

“The best of them is like a bryer…” Again, we see oft used imagery in thorns and thistles, bryers and hedges. Sharp, scratching objects as opposed to good fruit. They were a largely agrarian society, we see these symbols in the feasts and in God’s communication with them. Micah compares his contemporaries to the curse in Genesis and to the description of a desolate place. The best is compared to the worst kind of agriculture, a sharp, scratching thorn rather than a pretty part, like a rose. But even greater than a rose is edible fruit, of which we see none.

For time’s sake we will not delve deeper into the wickedness seen in the imagery because it is clear. But even amongst the imagery of evil a promise is made. “Then my enemy will see, And shame will cover her who said to me, ‘Where is the LORD your God?’ My eyes will look on her; At that time she will be trampled down, Like mire of the streets. It will be a day for building your walls. On that day will your boundary be extended. It will be a day when they will come to you From Assyria and the cities of Egypt, From Egypt even to the Euphrates, Even from sea to sea and mountain to mountain. And the earth will become desolate because of her inhabitants, On account of the fruit of their deeds. Shepherd Your people with Your scepter, The flock of Your possession Which dwells by itself in the woodland, In the midst of a fruitful field. Let them feed in Bashan and Gilead As in the days of old. ‘As in the days when you came out from the land of Egypt, I will show you miracles.’ Nations will see and be ashamed Of all their might. They will put their hand on their mouth, Their ears will be deaf. They will lick the dust like a serpent, Like reptiles of the earth. They will come trembling out of their fortresses; To the LORD our God they will come in dread, And they will be afraid before You. Who is a God like You, who pardons iniquity And passes over the rebellious act of the remnant of His possession? He does not retain His anger forever, Because He delights in unchanging love. He will again have compassion on us; He will tread our iniquities under foot. Yes, You will cast all their sins Into the depths of the sea. You will give truth to Jacob And unchanging love to Abraham, Which You did swear to our forefathers From the days of old.”

Is this a far-future fulfillment in a literal millennial kingdom or is this the promise of the coming of Jesus, the Messiah, invading earth as a baby boy, growing up into a man, teaching and dying, raised with “all authority?” Unfortunately, we have been taught some fairly dubious dogma which makes this prophecy cloudy. We have been told that God’s prophetic clock only moves while Israel is a nation. We believe that we are in the terminal generation in a self-centered approach to the Bible. We make an idol out of Israel, worshiping the creature rather than the creator. We are guilty of the same sins as Israel, listening to prophets making a profit. We fail to see the imagery as they did.

“The day when you post a watchman, Your punishment will come. Then their confusion will occur. Do not trust in a neighbor; Do not have confidence in a friend. From her who lies in your bosom Guard your lips. For son treats father contemptuously, Daughter rises up against her mother, Daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; A man’s enemies are the men of his own household.” Let’s look at that first sentence again; “The day when you post a watchman, Your punishment will come.” I find it a little more than slightly ironic that the dogmatic dispensationalists demand that we are watchmen. We have to see the imagery and compare it to the historical narrative as we do in Psalm 18, comparing it to 1+2 Samuel.

One small sample: “Then they told David, saying, ‘Behold, the Philistines are fighting against Keilah, and are plundering the threshing floors.’ So David inquired of the LORD, saying, ‘Shall I go and attack these Philistines?’ And the LORD said to David, ‘Go and attack the Philistines, and deliver Keilah.’ But David’s men said to him, ‘Behold, we are afraid here in Judah. How much more then if we go to Keilah against the ranks of the Philistines?’ Then David inquired of the LORD once more. And the LORD answered him and said, ‘Arise, go down to Keilah, for I will give the Philistines into your hand.’ So David and his men went to Keilah and fought with the Philistines; and he led away their livestock and struck them with a great slaughter. Thus David delivered the inhabitants of Keilah.”

Psalm 18 reads; “For the choir director. A Psalm of David the servant of the LORD, who spoke to the LORD the words of this song in the day that the LORD delivered him from the hand of all his enemies and from the hand of Saul. And he said, ‘I Love You, O LORD, my strength.’ The LORD is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer, My God, my rock, in whom I take refuge; My shield and the horn of my salvation, my stronghold. I call upon the LORD, who is worthy to be praised, And I am saved from my enemies. The cords of death encompassed me, And the torrents of ungodliness terrified me. The cords of Sheol surrounded me; The snares of death confronted me. In my distress I called upon the LORD, And cried to my God for help; He heard my voice out of His temple, [there was no temple]And my cry for help before Him came into His ears. Then the earth shook and quaked; And the foundations of the mountains were trembling And were shaken, because He was angry. Smoke went up aout of His nostrils, And fire from His mouth devoured; Coals were kindled by it.  He bowed the heavens also, and came down With thick darkness under His feet. And He rode upon a cherub and flew; And He sped upon the wings of the wind. He made darkness His hiding place, His canopy around Him, Darkness of waters, thick clouds of the skies. From the brightness before Him passed His thick clouds, Hailstones and coals of fire. The LORD also thundered in the heavens, And the Most High uttered His voice, Hailstones and coals of fire. And He sent out His arrows, and scattered them, And lightning flashes in abundance, and routed them. Then the channels of water appeared, And the foundations of the world were laid bare At Your rebuke, O LORD, At the blast of the breath of Your nostrils. He sent from on high, He took me; He drew me out of many waters. He delivered me from my strong enemy, And from those who hated me, for they were too mighty for me.”

We see the imagery in the apocalyptic address is not necessarily the reality seen recorded in the historical narrative. Therefore when we read the following passage in Micah, we search the Scripture for a literary fulfillment.  “The day when you post a watchman, Your punishment will come. Then their confusion will occur. Do not trust in a neighbor; Do not have confidence in a friend. From her who lies in your bosom Guard your lips. For son treats father contemptuously, Daughter rises up against her mother, Daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; A man’s enemies are the men of his own household.”

Jesus promised this upon his generation. We have to see the sublime string and take a long view of Scripture because it is all woven together. In closing we will once again consider Matthew 24. Jesus is the fulfillment of Micah. Notice; “And Jesus came out from the temple and was going away when His disciples came up to point out the temple buildings to Him. And He answered and said to them [not the generation alive in 1948, ‘Do you [not them] not see all these things? Truly I say to you, not one stone here shall be left upon another, which will not be torn down.’ And as He was sitting on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to Him privately, saying, ‘Tell us, when will these things be, and what will be the sign of Your coming, and of the end of the age?’ [Meaning they understood that the temple toppling was the end of the age.] Jesus answered and said to them, ‘See to it that no one misleads you [again, the disciples in private]. For many will come in My name, saying, “I am the Christ,” and will mislead many. And you will be hearing of wars and rumors of wars; see that you are not frightened, for those things must take place, but that is not yet the end. For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, and in various places there will be famines and earthquakes. But all these things are merely the beginning of birth pangs. Then they will deliver you to tribulation, and will kill you, and you will be hated by all nations on account of My name. And at that time many will fall way and will deliver up one another and hate one another. And many false prophets will arise, and will mislead many. And because lawlessness is increased, most people’s love will grow cold [Ephesus]. But the one who endures to the end, he shall be saved. And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in the whole world [the known world] for a witness to all the nations, and then the end shall come. Therefore when you see the ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains; let him who is on the housetop not go down to get the things out that are in his house; and let him who is in the field not turn back to get his cloak. But woe to those who are with child and to those who are nursing babies in those days! But pray that your flight may not be in the winter, or on a Sabbath; for then there will be a great tribulation, such as has not occurred since the beginning of the world until now, nor ever shall. And unless those days had been cut short, no life would have been saved; but for the sake of the elect those days shall be cut short. Then [meaning after] if anyone says to you, “Behold, here is the Christ,” or “There He is,” do not believe him. For false Christs and false prophets will arise and will show great signs and wonders, so as to mislead, if possible, even the elect. Behold, I have told you in advance. If therefore they say to you, “Behold, He is in the wilderness,” do not go forth, or, “Behold, He is in the inner rooms,” do not believe them. For just as the lightning comes from the east, and flashes even to the west, so shall the coming of the Son of Man be. Wherever the corpse is, there the vultures will gather. But immediately after the tribulation of those days THE SUN WILL BE DARKENED, AND THE MOON WILL NOT GIVE ITS LIGHT, AND THE STARS WILL FALL from the sky, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken, and then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the SON OF MAN COMING ON THE CLOUDS OF THE SKY with power and great glory. And He will send forth His angels with A GREAT TRUMPET and THEY WILL GATHER TOGETHER His elect from the four winds, from one end of the sky to the other. Now learn the parable from the fig tree: when its branch has already become tender, and puts forth its leaves, you know that summer is near; even so you too, when you see all these things, recognize that He is near, right at the door. Truly I say to YOU, this generation will not pass away until all these things take place. Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words shall not pass away. 3But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone. For the coming of the Son of Man will be just like the days of Noah. For as in those days which were before the flood they were eating and drinking, they were marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark, and they did not understand until the flood came and took them all away [the wicked were taken away]; so shall the coming of the Son of Man be. Then there shall be two men in the field; one will be taken, and one will be left. Two women will be grinding at the mill; one will be taken, and one will be left. Therefore be on the alert, for you do not know which day your Lord is coming. But be sure of this, that if the head of the house had known at what time of the night the thief was coming, he would have been on the alert and would not have allowed his house to be broken into. For this reason you be ready too; for the Son of Man is coming at an hour when you do not think He will. Who then is the faithful and sensible slave whom his master put in charge of his household to give them their food at the proper time? Blessed is that slave whom his master finds so doing when he comes. Truly I say to you, that he will put him in charge of all his possessions. But if that evil slave says in his heart, “My master is not coming for a long time,” and shall begin to beat his fellow slaves and eat and drink with drunkards; the master of that slave will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour which he does not know, and shall cut him in pieces and assign him a place with the hypocrites; weeping shall be there and the gnashing of teeth.”

 

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